Stan Lee is best known for his work with Marvel Comics. Among the hundreds of characters and teams that he helped to create were the Fantastic Four, Spider-Man, the Avengers, and the X-Men.
After graduating from high school at age 16, Lee was hired as an editorial assistant for Timely Comics, and in 1942 he was promoted to editor. By that time he had begun writing comic-book scripts for Timely as Stan Lee, a pseudonym that eventually became his legal name. In the 1940s and ’50s—during which time the group, later named Atlas, struggled financially—Lee created several comic-book series, including The Witness, The Destroyer, Jack Frost, Whizzer, and Black Marvel.
In 1961 Lee and artist Jack Kirby created The Fantastic Four, about four astronauts who gain superpowers after a cosmic incident. The series made him and Atlas—now known as Marvel—major forces in the comics world. One year later Lee and artist Steve Ditko created Spider-Man. Lee, Kirby, and Ditko adopted a collaborative workflow that came to be known as “the Marvel method.” The technique gave artists significantly more input on story plotting, and it allowed Marvel to produce new content at a dizzying rate. The books joined a roster of increasingly successful series that also included The Incredible Hulk. Lee and Kirby added another winner to the group when they created The X-Men in 1963. A distinctive feature of Lee’s comic-book heroes is that they combine superhuman powers with human insecurities and emotions. Marvel continued to prosper, and in 1972 Lee became publisher and editorial director of the group.
After working for Marvel in an official capacity for nearly 60 years, Lee began to pursue other projects, and in 1999 he formed Stan Lee Media, an Internet entertainment company built around his creations. Eventually his role at Marvel became that of chairman emeritus. Lee’s new firm did well with its first project, an animated online series called 7th Portal, which featured aliens who enter Earth through a “7th portal”—the Internet. After this initial success, however, the company was beset by a number of lawsuits and corruption charges. It filed for bankruptcy in February 2001. In 2004 Pow Entertainment was established for Lee’s various new characters and franchises.
Film adaptations based on the series that Lee cocreated were highly successful. X-Men (2000) and Spider-Man (2002) launched blockbuster franchises that earned billions of dollars in box-office revenue worldwide. Other Lee creations to receive the Hollywood treatment were Daredevil (2003), Hulk (2003), and Iron Man (2008). Lee was often featured in cameo roles in those films, a tradition that continued after Disney purchased Marvel in 2009. A flood of Marvel films followed the purchase, including those based on Lee-Kirby creations such as Thor (2011), the Avengers (2012), and Ant-Man (2015). In November 2002 Lee filed a $10 million lawsuit against Marvel after failing to receive any profits from the first Spider-Man movie, and in 2005 the court ruled in favour of Lee.
In addition to his work in other media, Lee wrote books on comics and on his own life. His published works include Origins of Marvel Comics (1974), Excelsior!: The Amazing Life of Stan Lee (2002), and Stan Lee and the Rise and Fall of the American Comic Book (2003). In 2008 he was awarded a National Medal of Arts.